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Composites

 

Composite materials were created when there emerged a need for new materials meeting designers' requirements.

It started when thermo- and chemosetting resins were worked out - they were combined with fiber materials which resulted in very good mechanical properties.

The development of composite materials manufacturing and research constantly leads to numerous improvements. The possibility of designing properties and structure of composite materials is an another argument that confirms their usefulness.

Nowadays, various products are made of polymer composites: boats, gliders, automotive parts, airplane coatings, tanks, pipes, drive shafts, impeller blades, sport equipment, bikes, fishing rods, electronics etc.

Composite is a material that consists of at least two another materials. According to the classic definition, a composite complies with the following:

  • the material has to be produced artificially
  • has to consist of minimum two chemically and fisically different materials
  • there is a clear borderline between the components
  • one of the components is the carcass which bonds the reinforcement and transfers the external load to the fibers (reinforcement)
  • the reinforcement transfers the loads
  • the composite properties are a function of components' properties and their volume

We can distinguish the following types of composites:

  • dispersive reinforced composites
  • particle reinforced composites
  • fiber reinforced composites

In dispersive composites the reinforcing particles are smaller than 0,1 µm and their volume is up to 15% in the material. In composites reinforced with particles, particle size is up to several hundred µm and their volume is ca. 25% (sometimes it can be 60%). Fiber composite are made of very thin fibers (diameter smaller than 100 µm) which are quite long. Their volume is up to 60% in the material.


Rovings, mats and fabrics are used during the manufacturing process. The highest strenght level is achieved at fiber reinforced composites.  

One of the best know coposite materials is a laminate.

 

 

 

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