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Laminates

The most popular laminates are those with polymer matrix. The polymer matrix is made of the following materials:

  • thermoplastics: polyamide, polypropylene, polyester, polycarbonate
  • thermosetting resins: phenol and aminoplastics
  • chemosetting resins: epoxy, silicone, polyester

Non-reinforced thermoplastics display quite low mechanical properties. Adding the fiber reinforcement increases its resistance, hardness and abrasion resistance. The products are made by means of injection and stamping. Basic thermosetting materials are: polyamide, polypropylene,   polycarbonate and thermoplastic polyesters.

The composites with thermosetting matrix are manufactured in two stages. At first, the moulding compounds are manufactured and stamped into a ready element. The resin is heated which results in further polycondensation. The pressure values at stamping are in the range of 7-12 MPa and temperature of 140-145°C in 3-10 minutes time. All the parameters are selected individually depending on the resins applied, type of stamping die and its thickness.
The composites with chemosetting matrix are frequently named epoxy or polyester laminates.  Various methods of production are used. A mould, which gives the required shape of the element is always necessary. As a reinforcement, the following fibers are used:

  • glass fibers
  • carbon fibers
  • polyamide fibers
  • polyethylene fibers
  • boron fibers

Depending on the required parameters we select suitable resins and reinforcement in order to optimize the quality and costs. There are many names for polymer composites, depending on materials used or hardening system:

  • GRP (Glass-Reinforced Plastic)
  • FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastic)
  • GFK (Glasfaserverstärkter Kunststoff )
  • RTRP (Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Plastic)
  • RTP (Reinforced Thermoset Plastic)

 

 

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